NDT Classroom ToFD Level II Course

Our ToFD Level II training is based on ASNT and ISO Standards topical outlines. The training is divided in sections. Each section covers a specific subject, basic knowledge, ToFD Theory, data analysis. The training covers manual ToFD as well as automated and semi-automated ToFD.

SECTION 1: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASOUND AND ULTRASOUND TESTING 

  • NDT 
  • Sound versus Ultrasound 
  • Distance, velocity, cycle, material density 
  • Sine wave, frequency, wavelength 
  • dB system 
  • The shell of an ultrasound instrument, TOFD probes, TOFD wedges TOFD 2
  • Pulser/receiver, square pulse 
  • Wave propagation, scattering, absorption, energy spreading 
  • Beam, sound field, beam diameter 
  • Through transmission, pulse echo, angle beam, immersion, PAUT 
  • A-Scan 
  • Structure and qualification of a procedure, training, acceptance criteria 
  • Calibration blocks, couplant 
  • Marking on part, probe positioning 
  • Naming files, storing data 
  • Section’s test 

SECTION 2: PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING TOFD 

  • Butt welds 
  • Digital instrument, pulser/receiver, digitizer, filters, gain 
  • Probes, frequency spectrum, signal waveform 
  • Wedges, hard wedges 
  • Scanner, encoder TOFD 3
  • Huygens’ principal, diffraction 
  • Snell’s law, incident vs. refracted, critical angles 
  • TOFD A-Scan, phase shift, phase difference, averaging 
  • PCS, transit time, depth calculation, height calculation, position uncertainty 
  • Beam spread, beam spread in-wedge, beam spread in-part, frequency spectrum 
  • Lateral wave, backwall, mode-converted backwall 
  • Dead zones, accuracy, resolution 
  • B-Scan, gray scale 
  • Whisker effect, parabolic cursors 
  • Non-parallel and parallel scans 
  • Multiple scans 
  • Influence of frequency on coverage, dead zones 
  • Influence of wedge angle on time scale, coverage 
  • Influence of PCS on dead zones, resolution, coverage 
  • How to optimize the digitizing frequency, filters, averaging, time window, sensitivity, PRF 
  • Calibration of the beam index point, velocity 
  • Scanning speed 
  • Wedge delay calibration, lateral wave straightening, lateral wave removal 
  • Interactive exercises on setups, beam index point and velocity calibration, scanning 
  • Interactive exercises on wedge delay calibration and lateral wave straightening 
  • Section’s test 

SECTION 3: DATA ANALYSIS 

  • B-Scan perspective 
  • Lateral wave, backwall and mode-converted backwall signals 
  • Effect of beam spread on depth and the backwall signal 
  • Indication classification, probe position vs. height, angle vs. height 
  • Geometrical indications, double-V welds, pipes misalignment, different wall thickness 
  • Data quality, calibration, basic analysis, detailed analysis 
  • Signal start, grouping, point-like indications 
  • Height and depth, top-surface breaking, bottom-surface breaking, embedded 
  • Length and position, parabolic shape, elongated and curved 
  • Interactive viewer, top-surface breaking, bottom-surface breaking, embedded 
  • Interactive exercises on setup, beam index calibration, scanning, data analysis 
  • Section’s test 

SECTION 4: REVIEW 

  • Hardware 
  • Scans and views 
  • Theory 
  • Setups 
  • Calibration 
  • Data analysis 
  • The defects 

SECTION 5: FINAL TEST 

  • 50-question final test